Red Square is the main square of Moscow and the most visited place in the capital of Russia. The most famous Moscow sights, such as the Moscow Kremlin and St. Basil's Cathedral are located near Red Square. The square is located in the city centre, along of the Kremlin eastern wall. Currently, it is a pedestrian area. Red Square of Moscow is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list.
The total length of the Red Square is 330 meters, width - 70 meters, the area about 23,1 m². You will find a lot of information about Red Square and other places on this page.
The territory which is occupied by the square nowadays was originally built up with various buildings. Located here buildings were destroyed by a fire at the end of the 15th century. Buildings construction was not made in subsequent years on this area. Territory had been used for market for several centuries. Located next to the eastern wall of the Kremlin territory was called “Fire place”, later “Torg” (trading place). The place became known as the “Red Square” (Красная Площадь) in the 17th century. (“Krasnaya ploschad” words have meanings not only “Red square”, but also “Beautiful square”.)
Buildings construction had been carried out on the surrounding square territory for many years. Some buildings had been built along the perimeter of the square and survived to this day: St. Basil's Cathedral (1555 - 1561), the Kazan Cathedral (17th century), shopping arcade, a monument to Minin and Pozharsky, the Historical Museum, the Mausoleum of Lenin. Square is paved with cobblestones.
Public events is often held on Red Square.
A military parade is held on the square every year at May 9th.
“Kremlin stars" military orchestras’ festival is held on the “Red Square” at the end of the summer.
Big ice rink is built on the Red Square every winter in the last years.
Red Square landmarks
There are several well-known sites located on the square: “Lobnoye mesto” (also known as the Place of Skulls), “Minin and Pozharsky” monument, the Lenin Mausoleum, Kremlin Wall Necropolis, GUM (State Department Store), the History Museum, Kazan Cathedral, St. Basil's Cathedral (Pokrovsky Cathedral).
Manezhnaya Square is located northwest of Red Square (behind the building of the Historical Museum).
“Vasilyevsky Spusk” square (Vasilevsky descent) is located between “Red Square” and banks of the “Moscow river” (behind St. Basil’s Cathedral). Zaryadye Park, which has become popular recently, is located there too.
Nikolskaya street is laid from the Kazan Cathedral in the north-east to Lubyanka Square. This pedestrian street is also very popular with tourists.
The Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow Kremlin (Московский Кремль) is the most famous attraction in Moscow. One of the Kremlin walls is located along the western border of the square. Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin is situated in the middle of the wall. The Kremlin is the oldest part of the Moscow, surrounded by a fortress wall. The Moscow Kremlin is the center of the state and the center of power in Russia for many years. Most of tourists come to Red Square and visit the Moscow Kremlin while being in Moscow. There is residence of the President of the Russian Federation located in the Kremlin.
You can visit The Moscow Kremlin page for more information.
St. Basil's Cathedral
St. Basil's Cathedral is one of the most beautiful churches of Russia. The cathedral was built in the years 1555 - 1561 on the orders of Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the capture of Kazan and the victory over the Kazan Khanate. It is an active church and a monument of architecture. The temple is located on the southern boundary of the Red Square. St. Basil's Cathedral is included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia. There is Minin and Pozharsky monument located next to the cathedral.
For more information, please visit about cathedral page.
The State History Museum is located on the northern edge of Red Square. The museum was founded by decree of Emperor Alexander II, 21 February 1872. The museum building was built in 1875 - 1881 years. It keeps artifacts, which reflect the history and culture of Russia. The museum has an area 4 000 square meters. The museum collection includes about 22 thousand items. There are some branches of the museum: Pokrovsky Cathedral (St. Basil), Novodevichy monastery, Lenin Museum, the Museum of the Patriotic War of 1812.
For more information, please visit Moscow museums page.
GUM (State Department Store) is located on the eastern border of the Red Square. It is one of the oldest department stores in Russia. This place has been used for trade since founding of Moscow. Upper Trading Rows new building was constructed in the 19th century here. Construction was completed in 1893. Currently, it is a private company, but the name “GUM” (State Department Store) remained.
Get more information about GUM.
Nikolskaya Street (Никольская улица) connects Red Square and Lubyanka Square. The north side of the street is lined with historic buildings, such as the Kazan Cathedral, the Old Mint, Monastery of the Holy Saviour. It is a pedestrian street and part of luxury shopping district.
- Moscow attractions: location on the map.
- Metro stations: location on the Moscow metro map.
- The most famous sights of Moscow.
Most tourists get to the Red Square by metro. The nearest stations are located about 300 – 400 meters away (“Ploschad Revolutsii”, “Okhotny Ryad”, “Teatralnaya”). You can also take a taxi.
It may be interesting for you: Hotels near Red Square in Moscow.
Tickets to the Kremlin can be bought online. Look for tickets and guided tours here.
The route planner will help you to make a route across Moscow. (Find out how to get to the place you need.)
Hotels near the Red Square in Moscow.
Guided tours in Moscow - choose online.
Flights and tickets.
Railway tickets in Russia (and in Europe).
Moscow - information and tourist guide.
There are several cafes in the department store GUM. Among the most popular are cafes "Festivalnoye" and "Canteen №57" (on the 3rd floor).